top of page

Basic Electronics & Concepts

                  Electronics is the branch of science which deals with the study of electrons in an atom of matter in different mediums under different conditions. The study also covers the invention and applications of new components and electronic devices according to their characteristics. 

                     What is an electron?

            The negatively charged particles in an atom are also called "Electrons". We have already studied that all atom consist of an +vely charged proton, neutron is surrounded by negatively charged electrons, in atom there will be more than 2 electrons present in different shells named as K, L, M, N. The electrons in outer most shell of an atom is more free than the inner electrons owing to the reason  Neucleus(protons+neutron) attracts the electrons towards its center, the nearest electrons have more attraction than the far. So that the outer most shell electrons are also called "free electrons". It helps the cuduction in metals.

                   Current (I)

                 The amount of flow of electrons through a conductor is called "Current". Assume that water from a water tank comes through       the pvc pipe, it depends on the diameter of the pipe. If we tried to increase the diameter it will allows more water flows through that pipe in a time period. If  the diameter reduced it may take more time to empty the tank. As mention above we can substitute the pvc pipe with

a conductor. Diameter of a conductor depends on the current flows through it. The unit of Current is "Ampere (A)".


                   Voltage (V)

                The potential difference between two ends of a conductor is called Voltage. If we take two phase lines in a three phase distribution system, one phase have 230 Volt, the potential difference between two phases are 460V. Potential difference between the one Neutral and one Phase is equal to 230V. Unit is Volt (V).

                  Resistance (Ω) 

                  The opposition to the current  through a conductor is called resistance. Unit of resistance is (Ω) Ohms.

                  OHM'S LAW

                  The the current through a conductor is directly propotional to the potential difference between the ends of it. If  Voltage V, Current I, Resistance R  ∴

                                        As per the ohm's law  V proportional to I and R is inversely propotional 


                                                                       V ∝ I    ∴

                                                  if we increase resitance 'R' at same voltage it will reduce 'I' current

                                                 so that Current is Inversely proportional to Resistance  


                                                               ∴       R ∝  1/ I

                                         If 'R' takes as constant in the above equation

                                                                         V = IR 

                                                                        V/I = R

                                                                        R = V / I

                                                                       I  = V/R 














bottom of page